Research »   Transport

คาสิโน เวียงจันทน์ pantip_เข้าสู่ระบบติดต่อกัน _วิธี หาเงิน จาก การ พนัน

Transportation is a critical element of modern cattle production and marketing. Nearly all cattle are transported several times in their lives. Successfully hauling livestock poses particular challenges and requires particular skills.


transport
Photo credit: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

 

Sections

An Important Issue for Canadians

cattle transport key facts for beef producers infographicThe public is concerned about livestock welfare in trailers, and livestock transport is one of the most common issues raised in letters to the federal Minister of Agriculture. Because many Canadians are several generations removed from the farm, most have no first-hand experience or knowledge of livestock production. Cattle in transport trailers are highly visible to the general public, and could be the closest contact many people have with livestock production.

Regulation of Livestock Transport in Canada

Livestock transportation in Canada is subject to several levels of regulation. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency is responsible for the animal welfare aspects of livestock such as loading densities, bedding requirements and time in transit through Part XII of the Health of Animals Regulations. Transport Canada’s Commercial Vehicle Drivers Hours of Service Regulations govern how often drivers need to stop for rest. Provincial departments of transport determine maximum trailer lengths and axle weight limits.

Canadian Research on Transport

Although there are often calls for tighter regulation of livestock transport, it is essential that any regulatory change be based on scientific evidence that the imposed change will actually improve animal welfare. To be meaningful, this research needs to be done using commercial cattle, transport trailers, and drivers under typical commercial distances and conditions.

To date, there have been no North American studies on effects of actual loading densities. There has also been no research on the most appropriate rest/feed/watering intervals. Research has been conducted in Europe, and provides some insights, but the results are not applicable in Canada. Climatic, geographical and political realities in Europe mean that a trip of several hours may involve crossing numerous international borders, mountain ranges, and/or moving from a mountainous to a Mediterranean climate.

Until recently, little information was available regarding cattle transportation under commercial conditions in Canada. Recent studies have found that 99.95% of long-haul (>400km) and 99.98% of short-haul cattle arrive at their destination with no signs of injury or stress.
Studies show that over 99.9% of cattle transported in Canada arrive at their destination injury-free.

Since 2006, Canadian researchers have worked to:

        • establish benchmarks for common industry transport practices
        • investigate the effects of loading density and trailer ventilation management (side boards) on calf transport outcomes and health early in the feeding period
        • investigate the effects of animal and handler behaviour, transport conditions, time and distance and transit, and driving practices on transport outcomes and carcass parameters (shrink, bruising, and dark cutters) in fed cattle and market cows.

Maintaining Welfare During Transport of Cattle

Today’s commercial transport trailers with air-ride suspensions represent a considerable evolution from historical modes of moving cattle in Canada, which have included river boats, on foot, by railroad and various versions of farm truck. Cattle move much farther, and more quickly and safely now than ever before. However, transportation is still a risky process.

Hire a responsible transport company

Until recently, little information was available regarding cattle transportation under commercial conditions in Canada. Recent studies have found that 99.95% of long-haul (>400km) and 99.98% of short-haul cattle arrive at their destination with no signs of injury or stress.

Transport animals in good condition

Producers need to ensure that they do not load cattle that are sick, injured or would otherwise suffer unduly due to transport.

PorosityThe Duffy Pattern (left) provides 12% porosity, as opposed to the 10% of porosity with the Punch Hole Pattern.
Photo credit: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

Determine the risk level of animals

These recommendations apply to all classes of cattle, but studies have shown that some classes of cattle are more prone to injury in transit.

Low Risk

Finished and yearling cattle are young, healthy and have good nutritional reserves, which helps them to easily withstand transport stress.

Medium Risk

During the fall run, calves may be more tired and stressed due to a combination of weaning stress, commingling with calves from other herds, and unfamiliar feed in livestock markets. These calves may be at higher risk of injury in transit, and are much more likely to get sick as a result of this accumulated stress. Calves are more susceptible as the time in truck increases, especially at more than 30 hours. Calves are also more sensitive than fat cattle to external temperature of less than -15 degrees or higher than 30 degrees Celsius.

High Risk

Transport
Photo credit: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

Market cows are the highest risk group, especially those that are older, thinner and weaker. In winter, thin haired dairy cows from an insulated barn are faced with additional challenges, particularly if they are still lactating.

When transporting market cows, pay particular attention to loading density, weather conditions and time in transit. It is recommended that market cows not be loaded in the belly or deck of the trailer due to lower space allowance. Market cows should be well bedded, and segregated in the backend so that they are loaded last and unloaded first.

Cows with a body condition score (BCS) of 1 should never be transported. Cows with a BCS of 2 should only be transported short distances

Handle animals with care when loading

Handling and loading facilities should be well-maintained and designed in way that minimizes stress and injury. Cattle should be handled as calmly and quietly as possible during both loading and unloading to prevent bruising and other injuries related to falling or slipping.

Prevent stress

In addition to the risk of transport injury, stress can depress the immune system. Steps taken to avoid or reduce stress in transport will reduce the risk of animals becoming sick after the trip is completed. Ensure that cattle:

      • are not wet
      • have the opportunity to eat and drink within five hours of loading
      • have adequate bedding in trailer compartments
      • are loaded at an appropriate density

Drivers should:

      • avoid rapid acceleration
      • avoid any sudden stops or cornering
      • stop periodically to check that no cattle have gone down
      • adhere to appropriate feed, water and rest intervals

Facility Design and Transport Procedures to Prevent Carcass Bruising

Future Canadian Research on Transport

Canadian researchers intend to begin a scientific evaluation of:

  • Cull cow, calf and feeder cattle welfare during long-haul
  • Appropriate feed, water and rest intervals
  • Risk factors associated with incidences of dead, down and lame cattle
  • Effect of climate
  • Loading density
  • Ventilation
  • Bedding use
transport
References

González, L.A., Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K.S., Bryan, M., Silasi, R., and Brown, F. (2012). "Space allowance during commercial long distance transport of cattle in North America.", Journal of Animal Science. doi: 10.2527/jas.2011-4771

González, L.A., Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K.S., Bryan, M., Silasi, R., and Brown, F.A. (2012). "Benchmarking study of industry practices during commercial long haul transport of cattle in Alberta, Canada.", Journal of Animal Science. doi: 10.2527/jas.2011-4770

González, L.A., Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K.S., Bryan, M., Silasi, R., and Brown, F.A. (2012). "Factors affecting body weight loss during commercial long haul transport of cattle in North America.", Journal of Animal Science. doi: 10.2527/jas.2011-4786

González, L.A., Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K.S., Bryan, M., Silasi, R., and Brown, F.A. (2012). "Relationships between transport conditions and welfare outcomes during commercial long haul transport of cattle in North America.", Journal of Animal Science. doi: 10.2527/jas.2011-4796

 

Learn More

The skinny on market cows
เกมยิงปลาออนไลน์24 ชั่วโมง www.cheapoakleysglasses.com | BCRC Blog
/e8f/blog/the-skinny-on-market-cows/

Recommended Animal handling Guidelines & Audit Guide: A systematic approach to animal welfare
AMI Foundation
http://www.animalhandling.org

Evaluating Industry Cattle Transport Practices
Alberta Beef Producers
เกมยิงปลาออนไลน์24 ชั่วโมงhttp://www.albertabeef.org

Certified Livestock Transport (CLT) The Canadian Livestock Transport (CLT) Training Program is a comprehensive training course and support service for livestock truckers, shippers and receivers.
http://www.livestocktransport.ca

Humane Handling Guidelines
Alberta Farm Animal Care (AFAC)
http://www.afac.ab.ca

Should This Animal be Loaded? Guidelines for Transporting Cattle, Sheep & Goats
Ontario Farm Animal Council
http://www.farmfoodcare.org

Caring for Compromised Cattle
Ontario Farm Animal Council
http://www.farmfoodcare.org

Transport Benchmark Study
A presentation by Dr. Karen Schwartzkopf-Genswein at the AFAC Transport Conference, January 29, 2009 in Calgary, AB.
http://www.livestocktransport.ca

Beef Cattle Transportation: Livestock Safety Cushion
Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs
http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca

Humane Transport / Animal Welfare
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
http://www.inspection.gc.ca

Video: Tour of Beef Plant Featuring Temple Grandin
American Meat Institute
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VMqYYXswono&feature=youtu.be" target="

Shipping Cull Cows: Responsible Welfare Considerations
BCRC Blog Article
/e8f/blog/shipping-cull-cows/"

It Happened Again: Internet Video of Mistreatment of Cows
เกมยิงปลาออนไลน์24 ชั่วโมง www.cheapoakleysglasses.com | BCRC Blog
/e8f/blog/mistreatment-of-cows/"

 

Feedback

Feedback and questions on the content of this page are welcome. Please e-mail us at info [at] beefresearch [dot] ca.

Acknowledgments

Thanks to Dr. Karen Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Researcher focused on animal welfare standards and reducing transport stress in farm animals for contributing her time and expertise to writing this page.

This topic was last revised on August 14, 2018 at 03:08 AM.

Fact Sheets

Canadian Cattlemen's Association Verified Beef Production Canada Beef
© 2018 BCRC. All Rights Reserved | Privacy Policy | Terms of Service | Sitemap | info [at] beefresearch [dot] ca | Site By Media Dog